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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 23-29

The effects of human amniotic fluid on periodontal ligament fibroblast cell viability, proliferation, and cytokine/growth factor expression


1 Department of Periodontology, Indiana University School of Dentistry, Indianapolis, IN, USA
2 Biomedical Sciences and Comprehensive Care, Indiana University School of Dentistry, Indianapolis, IN, USA

Correspondence Address:
Prof. L Jack Windsor
Department of Biomedical Sciences and Comprehensive Care, Indiana University School of Dentistry, 1121 West Michigan Street, DS 271, Indianapolis, IN 46202
USA
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/GFSC.GFSC_10_19

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Background: The importance of the amniotic fluid (AF) to the fetus is clear. However, very few studies have been published to examine the potential uses of this fluid in various areas such as tissue regeneration. AF contains epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor-alpha, transforming growth factor beta-1, insulin-like growth factor-I, erythropoietin and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, as well as hyaluronic acid and hyaluronic acid-stimulating factor. Previous studies suggest that AF can increase fibroblast proliferation and chemotaxis, and decrease apoptosis as well as promote wound healing. Furthermore, evidence showed that human AF inhibits hyaluronidase, elastase, and cathepsin. The current study examined the effects of human AF on periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLF) in terms of cell toxicity, cell proliferation, and cytokine/growth factor expression. Materials and Methods: Cytotoxicity of AF on PDLF was determined using lactate dehydrogenase assays. PDLF proliferation was determined using water-soluble tetrazolium-1 assays. Cytokine/growth factor expression was determined on AF-treated PDLF, AF alone, and PDLF alone utilizing protein arrays. Results: Human AF at 10% and below did not affect cell growth and was not toxic. AF-treated PDLF cells showed a decrease in cytokine/growth factor levels compared to the sum of cytokine/growth factor levels in AF only and cells only for 39 of the 80 proteins examined (48.8%). Of the 39 examined cytokines, 20 inflammatory cytokines, 11 cell cycle cytokines, 1 anti-inflammatory cytokine, and 7 other cytokines were decreased. Conclusion: Human AF at the examined concentrations was not toxic to PDLF cells and did not influence their proliferation. In addition, AF (10%) caused a decrease in the total protein levels of cytokines/growth factors expressed in 39 of the 80 proteins examined (48.8%). Of the 39 examined cytokines, 20 inflammatory cytokines, 11 cell cycle cytokines, 1 anti-inflammatory cytokine, and 7 other cytokines were decreased.


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